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Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, Kiel

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  • 1
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    Stuttgart : Thieme
    Type of Medium: Unknown
    Pages: 528 S.
    Edition: 3., neu bearb. Auflage
    ISBN: 3131065133
    Language: German
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Annexins were isolated fromParamecium cell homogenates by standard ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) extraction and 100 000-g centrifugation. Two different antibodies (Abs) against synthetic peptides were used, Call-15 and B15, which in mammalian cells recognize a sequence of annexin II or a common sequence occurring in several annexins (except for annexin II), respectively. With anti-Call-15 Abs, western blots from EGTA extracts showed strongly reactive bands of 44.5 and 46 kDa and of higher values. Some of these bands bound to the 100 000-g pellet fraction when Ca2+ was added. Immuno- and affinity labelling revealed selective. Ca2+-dependent labelling of the cell cortex, with enrichent around trichocyst docking sites (facing subplasmalemmal Ca2+ stores). Cortical fluorescence labelling decreased in wild-type (7S) cells when trichocyst ghosts were detached after synchronous exocytosis. Similarly, cortical labelling was reduced when intact trichocysts were detached from the cell surface of non-discharge mutant cells (nd9–28°C, showing identical bands on blots), which then contained numerous heavily labelled phagolysosomes. This strongly suggests annexin downregulation. All together, the dynamic labelling of cortical structures we observed strongly supports involvement of calpactin-like annexins in trichocyst docking. Anti-B15 Abs recognized a band of 51 kDa and some of higher values. These Abs selectively labelled the outlines of the cytoproct, the site of spent phagolysosome exocytosis. In conclusion, our data indicate involvement of specific sets of annexins in site-specific positioning and attachment of widely different secretory organelles at the cell surface inParamecium cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-234X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The statocyst ofOrconectes limosus contains static hairs arranged in four groups. All the hairs are the same in basic structure; they differ only in length and diameter and in their positions with respect to the other hairs in the group and to the statolith. In terms of functional morphology, each static hair is part of a unit consisting of an acellular lever string, three receptor cells, a scolopale cell, sheath cells, and enveloping cells. The lever string comprises two components in a characteristic longitudinal arrangement. The structure of the receptor cells resembles that of the arthropod chemo- and mechanoreceptors studied previously. The cilium and the postciliary section lie within two receptor cavities, formed by the scolopale cell and the sheath cells; the two cavities communicate with one another. The receptor cells are fixed in position by various structures. Proximally they form desmosomes with the scolopale cell, medially they are joined by filaments to the inner wall of cavity 1, and distally they are retained by a constriction between the two cavities. Two possible stimulus-mediating mechanisms are discussed: pressure changes in the receptor cavities and shearing of the base of the cilia with respect to the preciliary region. The lever string is part of the cuticle and hence is shed during molting. Nevertheless, the statocyst remains functional during this process because new structural units are formed below the old cuticle prior to ecdysis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-234X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The skin ofTetraodon steindachneri is morphologically and cytologically adapted to the habits and locomotion of the fish, as well as to its ability to expand its body into a nearly spherical shape. Negative buoyancy, which facilitates precise maneuvers near the bottom, is achieved primarily by a very thick dermis. Various special features of the skin enable it to withstand the mechanical stresses of extreme expansion and deep folding: (1) the absence of a covering such as a cuticle on the outer surface of the epidermis, (2) the lack of scales, (3) the pronounced interdigitation of the epidermal cells, (4) the cytoskeleton of the filament-containing cells, and (5) the stratum compactum of the dermis. The spines, which inT. steindachneri can be extended and retracted, are derived, like the spines of diodontidae, from the scales of other teleosts. Each spine comprises cellular and acellular components, which together produce a complicated bilaterally symmetrical structure. Movement of the spines is mainly a passive mechanical concomitant of distension of the body, though active processes cannot be ruled out. The biological significance of the spine apparatus ofT. steindachneri is discussed.
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