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Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, Kiel

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  • Publication Date: 2016-06-21
    Description: This paper is qualitative and theoretical research of the concept of freedom, perceived through different epistemological traditions. The research focus is laid on the phenomenon of freedom in the frames of liberal ontological and epistemological tradition, freedom as a derivative of the individual liberty, and how the individual liberty remains a precondition for evolving freedom. The beginning is characterized as a comparison between the different freedom traditions, starting with collective freedom traditions, following individualist freedom traditions and finalizing with operationalization of individual liberty. The process of operationalization of liberty, or presenting it as an organizational and regulation principle, leads to demystification of freedom in individualistic traditions, and indicates its tight connection with individual liberty.
    Keywords: Philosophie ; Philosophy ; individual liberty ; individual space ; individual action ; Philosophie, Theologie ; Philosophy, Ethics, Religion ; Freiheit ; Operationalisierung ; Liberalismus ; Individualität ; Erkenntnistheorie ; freedom ; operationalization ; liberalism ; individuality ; epistemology
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 1 | 2 | 8-23
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: "The goal of the paper is to depict the international responsibility of state as the closest link to the core, axiology and teleology of the international law. The concept of international responsibility could be interpreted as an inter-phase, a stadium between the state sovereignty in internal sense, on one hand and the ultimate goal of realistically feasible implementation of the principles of the international law, saliently with coercion (as a paramount hierarchical level), on the other. The focus would be on the actions, capacities and attributes of state as an active and passive subject of paramount significance in the establishment of international legal touchstones for its international responsibility, as well as on the contextual correlation among the international community, the state and specific international legal subsystems. The issue of quantification of the gravity of the wrongfulness of the act is essential for differential determination of the international responsibility of state." (author's abstract)
    Keywords: Recht ; Law ; Recht ; Law ; internationales Recht ; Souveränität ; Völkerrecht ; Verantwortung ; international law ; sovereignty ; law of nations ; responsibility ; 40100 ; 29900
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 2 | 1 | 60-74
    Publication Date: 2016-06-21
    Description: Unfortunately, modern liberals have long misrepresented and misused the foundational principles of liberalism, in order to claim that the fundamental function of every democratic state is the pursuit of its citizens’ liberty, as well as to viciously attack all states and leaders that do not consider liberty to be sacrosanct. Via an appeal to the essential works of liberalism and realism, this paper has thoroughly contradicted the claims of modern liberalism and has definitively argued that security, not liberty, is the fundamental purpose of every state. Furthermore, this paper has comprehensively analyzed the USA, in order to demonstrate that, if a state sacrifices the liberty of its citizenry in order to maintain its national security, then the state’s actions are not merely just and ethical vis-à-vis its citizenry, but, rather, fulfill the state’s fundamental, protective, function and are, in fact, an inevitable, benevolent, aspect of the state’s existence.
    Keywords: Politikwissenschaft ; Political science ; Allgemeines, spezielle Theorien und Schulen, Methoden, Entwicklung und Geschichte der Politikwissenschaft ; Basic Research, General Concepts and History of Political Science ; Demokratie ; politisches System ; Liberalismus ; Freiheitsrecht ; Locke, J. ; Machiavelli, N. ; Montesquieu ; Tocqueville, A. ; USA ; Sicherheit ; Freiheit ; politische Ideologie ; democracy ; political system ; liberalism ; rights of personal liberty ; Locke, J. ; Machiavelli, N. ; Montesquieu ; Tocqueville, A. ; United States of America ; security ; freedom ; political ideology
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 1 | 2 | 94-102
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: "The paper in front of you presents an attempt to give an answer to the hypothesis -is the use of force in accordance with the public international law and several issues arising from it- if the use of force is allowed then when it receives international legality and legitimacy? If it's legally prohibited, whether such prohibition is general rule without any derogations or there is an exception to that rule? The research was done using the method of contextual analysis of international documents (UN Charter, relevant UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly resolutions, and court cases from the practice of International Court of Justice). Some of the main conclusions are: UN member states are obligated to refrain from threat or use of force against territorial integrity and political independence of another state. The exclusive right of using force is situated only in the Security Council." (author's abstract)
    Keywords: Recht ; Politikwissenschaft ; Law ; Political science ; Recht ; Friedens- und Konfliktforschung ; Law ; Peace and Conflict Research, International Conflicts, Security Policy ; Gewalt ; Völkerrecht ; Legitimität ; Legalität ; Charta ; UNO ; UNO-Sicherheitsrat ; Recht ; territoriale Integrität ; politische Unabhängigkeit ; NATO ; Kosovo ; violence ; law of nations ; legitimacy ; legality ; charter ; UNO ; UN Security Council ; law ; territorial integrity ; political independence ; NATO ; Kosovo ; 10500 ; 40100
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 1 | 2 | 70-78
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: "The attention of this paper focuses on international relations and the impact of public. This paper focuses on international relations and the impact of public diplomacy. The main goal of this study is to analyze the modern instruments of Public diplomacy that are available to countries aiming to achieve three goals in realizing their national interests: first, to overcome negative images from their past, second, to disseminate their values and model of governing and, third, which is most frequently the case, made widely known their comparative economic and trade advantages for foreign investment. Having in mind the Macedonian example, some analysts, when talking about the introduction of EU to the, citizens, believe that they do not sufficiently explain what it means membership in Euro-Atlantic structures. The Republic of Macedonia shall be used as a reference to the case study in the thesis where numerous practical examples are applied to Public diplomacy in the country recent past record in the field of public diplomacy." (author's abstract)
    Keywords: Politikwissenschaft ; Political science ; internationale Beziehungen ; International Relations, International Politics, Foreign Affairs, Development Policy ; Diplomatie ; internationale Beziehungen ; USA ; Polen ; Mazedonien ; Tschechische Republik ; Öffentlichkeit ; diplomacy ; international relations ; United States of America ; Poland ; Macedonia ; Czech Republic ; the public ; 10500
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 1 | 2 | 109-116
    Publication Date: 2015-09-22
    Description: "This paper is about development of investigative activity procedures and prosecutions in the international tribunals since the Nuremberg Charter, with special reference to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and cases involving the Republic of Macedonia. According to that, the paper firstly indicates the International Court of Justice and Statute of ICTY where the tribunal has jurisdiction over four crimes: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of laws or customs of war, crimes against humanity and genocide committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia from the start of the war in 1991 until to a date to be determined by the Security Council upon the restoration of peace." (author's abstract)
    Keywords: Recht ; Law ; Recht ; Law ; Strafverfolgung ; Internationaler Gerichtshof ; Kriegsverbrechen ; Völkermord ; Genfer Konvention ; Jugoslawien ; Mazedonien ; Strafrecht ; Ermittlungsverfahren ; prosecution ; International Court of Justice ; war crime ; genocide ; Geneva Convention ; Yugoslavia ; Macedonia ; criminal law ; preliminary proceedings ; 40100
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 3 | 1 | 63-68
    Publication Date: 2017-05-11
    Description: This paper analyzes the importance of self-determination in international relations. It explains the puzzle why some small regions or group of people are ready to be small states by separating from big powerful states. The self-determination of a nation is preferable to the people than a military power of the large state. The military power of a state may not translate into a better life of people. So people’s empowerment cannot be treated the necessary outcome of state’s military power. When one group of people feel as marginalized in national policymaking and its implications, they show a secessionist tendency. This paper contends that people may prefer their ideology, identity and self-determination than the power of the state.
    Keywords: Internationale Beziehungen ; International relations ; internationale Beziehungen, Entwicklungspolitik ; International Relations, International Politics, Foreign Affairs, Development Policy ; internationale Beziehungen ; Selbstbestimmung ; Nation ; Identität ; politische Macht ; Separatismus ; Sezession ; international relations ; self-determination ; nation ; identity ; political power ; separatism ; secession
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 2 | 3 | 9-29
    Publication Date: 2017-01-23
    Description: This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive, liberal, migration policies and consequent penetration with foreign, inherently contradictory ideology. Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent, indispensable, paterfamilias of realism, Niccolò Machiavelli, explicitly confirm that, if any state fails to adequately restrict the migration of people and ideas across its borders, then that state will inevitably become penetrated by a foreign, inherently contradictory, ideology, and, consequently, eviscerated by an unrelenting insecurity.
    Keywords: Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie ; Politikwissenschaft ; Social sciences, sociology, anthropology ; Political science ; Migration ; Montesquieu ; Security ; Migration ; politische Willensbildung, politische Soziologie, politische Kultur ; Allgemeines, spezielle Theorien und Schulen, Methoden, Entwicklung und Geschichte der Politikwissenschaft ; Migration, Sociology of Migration ; Political Process, Elections, Political Sociology, Political Culture ; Basic Research, General Concepts and History of Political Science ; Dänemark ; EU ; Frankreich ; Machiavelli, N. ; Montesquieu ; Migrationspolitik ; nationale Sicherheit ; Einwanderung ; Einwanderungspolitik ; Liberalismus ; Flüchtlingspolitik ; Denmark ; EU ; France ; Machiavelli, N. ; Montesquieu ; migration policy ; national security ; immigration ; immigration policy ; liberalism ; policy on refugees
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 3 | 1 | 69-77
    Publication Date: 2017-05-11
    Description: Recent challenges in international security posed by two terrorist organizations, Al Qaeda and ISIS, have highlighted an urgent domestic and foreign policy challenge. Terrorism has been, for more than a decade, top headline in the world media, and the cost of terrorist activities is expressed in numerous human lives and enormous material damage. Yet to date, international organizations and governments have not been successful in the attempt to find a common definition or uniform approach. Up to now, the approaches towards terrorist activities differ from case to case. There is no single legal regime to deal with terrorist activities, and the legal regime is what gives the answer and the framework for the counterterrorist activities of the security forces, in order to be able to deal with the threat. This paper will attempt to answer at least some of the dilemmas.
    Keywords: Politikwissenschaft ; Political science ; extraterritoriality ; Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Sicherheitspolitik ; Peace and Conflict Research, International Conflicts, Security Policy ; Terrorismus ; Bedrohung ; Anti-Terror-Politik ; Terrorismusbekämpfung ; internationale Sicherheit ; internationales Abkommen ; Menschenrechte ; terrorism ; threat ; anti-terror policy ; fight against terrorism ; international security ; international agreement ; human rights
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Journal of Liberty and International Affairs | 1 | 3 | 20-29
    Publication Date: 2016-01-04
    Description: Discrimination against women based on the fact that they are women is a deeply rooted practice in all societies. However, the level of discrimination varies greatly with the level of development of the given society and strongly influences and vice versa it is influenced by the status of women in a given society. Addressing this gender-based discrimination is a difficult task because it is closely linked to the concept of equality, and state’s action and inactions. The article establishes that the States parties’ obligation is to ensure that there is no direct or indirect discrimination against women in their laws, sanctions, and other remedies and those women are protected against discrimination in the public, as well as, in the private spheres.
    Keywords: Recht ; Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie ; Law ; Social sciences, sociology, anthropology ; direct and indirect discrimination ; CEDAW ; ECHR ; HRC of the ICCPR ; Recht ; Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung ; Law ; Women's Studies, Feminist Studies, Gender Studies ; Frauenfeindlichkeit ; Diskriminierung ; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren ; sozialer Status ; Gleichstellung ; Gleichheit ; Menschenrechte ; Frau ; internationales Recht ; Gleichbehandlung ; Frauenpolitik ; Chancengleichheit ; Rechtsnorm ; mysogyny ; discrimination ; gender-specific factors ; social status ; affirmative action ; equality ; human rights ; woman ; international law ; equal treatment ; women's policy ; equal opportunity ; legal norm
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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