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Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, Kiel

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  • Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Keywords: Soziologie, Anthropologie ; Wirtschaft ; Sociology & anthropology ; Economics ; Organisationssoziologie, Militärsoziologie ; Management ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Organizational Sociology ; Management Science ; Labor Market Policy ; Unternehmenskultur ; Handlung ; Organisationshandeln ; Jugendlicher ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Beschäftigungspolitik ; Unternehmen ; Entscheidung ; Interaktion ; organizational culture ; action ; organizational behavior ; adolescent ; unemployment ; employment policy ; enterprise ; decision ; interaction
    Type: Monographie , monograph
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  • Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Poverty remains a concern in both the global and the Indian context, with poverty reduction being a major objective of current development planning processes. Existing Knowledge Management and development literatures characterise knowledge as a driver for both economic and social growth. Current theoretical frameworks of Knowledge-Based Development (KBD) and Knowledge for Poverty Alleviation (KPA), while illuminating economic dimensions of knowledge management, tend to underplay the importance of social and community needs. Consequently, there is a need for a new conceptualisation of a knowledge-sharing approach that addresses social and community needs and contributes to poverty reduction. The aim of this thesis is to explore an alternative post-colonial approach to the application of knowledge management to development, focused on the problem of poverty reduction in the context of NGOs operating in Tamil Nadu. In pursuing this aim, a substantive theory is generated that captures new conceptual and practical insights about the application of knowledge-sharing as a means of poverty reduction and of enhancing capabilities. To this end, a qualitative research design was adopted because it is a methodology that examines a social problem, providing opportunities for representing it in its wholeness and complexity. In doing so, emphasis is placed on insights gained from the ideas and perspectives of participants. The analysis draws on multiple sources of data, ranging from face-to-face interviews, photographs, and observations, to print media collected over a one-year period spent in Tamil Nadu. The data are analysed using phenomenological techniques that are exploratory and explanatory in nature. From the analysis a Knowledge Sharing for Development (KS4D) framework emerged as a way of capturing a knowledge-sharing alternative. It conceptualises how NGOs can more effectively share knowledge in ways that do not compromise or challenge their organisational autonomy and independence. The analysis begins with a description of an emergent Basic Social Problem (BSP) in which the dimension of poverty in Tamil Nadu are explored. Then, a Basic Institutional Problem (BIP) is identified that provides a conceptual understanding of the problems associated with knowledge- sharing, faced by NGOs in Tamil Nadu. The analysis concludes with a description and explanation of the KS4D framework including its potential benefits to NGOs. This thesis contributes to theory in that the KS4D framework expands on current knowledge-sharing approaches to development, by exploring the concept from a post-colonial perspective. The BIP expands on current understanding of barriers to knowledge-sharing in the literature, outlining a fundamental problem faced by NGOs in Tamil Nadu. The BSP contributes to theory in that it expands on current poverty understanding and their interrelationships. This thesis contributes to practice in that the KS4D framework presents an approach for NGOs to come together and share knowledge towards achieving common aims, addressing the BIP. The KS4D framework further contributes to practice in that it increases the impact of NGOs on their poverty reduction work, affecting the BSP. The BSP in practice is useful, as it presents an updated concept of poverty, with both overarching and specific elements, forming the practical environment in which NGOs operate. Future research in assessing the KS4D framework and BIP and BSP concepts in their applications include testing and assessing them across other states in India and in other national contexts. Further research could also address the need to refine and delineate the factors and dimensions of KS4D.
    Keywords: Soziale Probleme und Sozialdienste ; Social problems and services ; Knowledge-sharing; Tamil Nadu ; soziale Probleme ; Social Problems ; nichtstaatliche Organisation ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Indien ; Region ; Bundesstaat ; soziales Problem ; Wissensmanagement ; Wissenserwerb ; Bildungsungleichheit ; soziale Ungleichheit ; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren ; Entwicklungshilfepolitik ; Entwicklungshilfe ; soziale Konstruktion ; non-governmental organization ; combating poverty ; India ; region ; federal state ; social problem ; knowledge management ; knowledge acquisition ; educational inequality ; social inequality ; gender-specific factors ; development aid policy ; development aid ; social construction ; empirisch-qualitativ ; qualitative empirical ; 20500
    Type: Dissertation , phd thesis
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    CHE
    In:  International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences | 65 | 1-15
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Recently businesses need to find the new ways to ensure business growth and competitiveness in the international market. Cultural diversity of international business brings new challenges in the development and implementation of negotiation strategies of businesses, in cooperation with foreign partners. At present business solutions are used for development and implementation of negotiating strategies for international business, which are not universally suitable for business development in all situations in context of globalization, with current challenges, which are characterized by increasing risk, uncertainty and cultural differences. New challenges in international business negotiations are caused by formation of common cultural and information space in a global scale, the new demands for information technology progress in development of international competition and accelerating innovation processes. International business negotiation strategy development and implementation are setting the essential features and causal relations and is relevant in practice by creating in each negotiation case the unique negotiation strategy, focused on maximizing the effectiveness of the international business with the aim of more efficient use of business negotiation potential - the negotiating power. In scientific problem solving it is necessary to offer such instruments, which would take into account bargaining power of participants in negotiations, and would allow real implementation of business strategies and constitute an appropriate contribution to their development. The article aims - to design a theoretical model for preparing and implementing strategies of international business negotiations, based on evaluations of bargaining powers and to verify experimentally its relevance and applicability.
    Keywords: Wirtschaft ; Economics ; National Economy ; Volkswirtschaftstheorie ; internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Entscheidung ; Großhandel ; Wettbewerb ; Strategie ; Unternehmen ; Verhandlung ; wirtschaftliche Macht ; wholesale ; economic power ; negotiation ; decision ; international economic relations ; competition ; enterprise ; strategy ; economic relations
    Type: journal article , Zeitschriftenartikel
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    DEU
    In:  International journal for research in vocational education and training | 3 | 1 | 16-28
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools. (author's abstract)
    Keywords: Politikwissenschaft ; Bildung und Erziehung ; Education ; Political science ; Bildungsraum ; Makroebene des Bildungswesens ; Europapolitik ; European Politics ; Macroanalysis of the Education System, Economics of Education, Educational Policy ; Estonia ; EU ; vocational education policy ; educational policy ; education standards ; vocational education ; Europeanization ; Bildungsstandards ; Estland ; Berufsbildung ; Bildungspolitik ; Europäisierung ; Berufsbildungspolitik ; EU ; 20100 ; 10600
    Type: journal article , Zeitschriftenartikel
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  • Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Die Internationale Vereinigung für Bildungs- und Berufsberatung (IAEVG, AIOSP) ist der weltweit größte und älteste internationale Verband von Beraterinnen und Beratern im Bereich Bildung, Beruf und Beschäftigung. Sie setzt sich für die professionelle Weiterentwicklung der Beratung und für gleichen Zugang aller Bürgerinnen und Bürger zu qualitätsvoller, von ausgebildeten Beratungsfachkräften durchgeführter Bildungs-, Berufs- und Beschäftigungsberatung ein. Nach einer kurzen Darstellung der Anfänge der Berufsberatung als soziale Dienstleistung wird die Geschichte der Internationalen Vereinigung für Bildungs- und Berufsberatung IAEVG von der Gründung 1951 bis zum Jahr 2011 in chronologischer Reihenfolge (Jahr für Jahr) mit den wichtigsten verbandsbezogenen Aktivitäten, fachlichen Veranstaltungen (Konferenzen, Seminaren) und wissenschaftlichen Studien im Rahmen der internationalen Zusammenarbeit in diesem Bereich beschrieben. Dabei spielt die Kooperation mit den wichtigsten internationalen Organisationen UNESCO, ILO, EU, OECD etc. und die dabei gegebenen fachlichen Impulse zur Weiterentwicklung der Bildungs- und Berufsberatung als soziale und ökonomisch wichtige Dienstleistung eine herausragende Rolle. Ergänzt wir der Text durch die Wiedergabe von wichtigen Grundsatzdokumenten des Verbandes zur Bildungs- und Berufsberatung (policy statements) und fachlichen Entwicklungen (Internationale Ethische Standards, Internationale Kompetenzen etc. und Listen über internationale Konferenzen und wissenschaftliche Studien der Vereinigung. Der Text ist in englischer Sprache verfasst.
    Description: The International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance IAEVG developed from its early beginnings 1951 as a practitioners' initiative after World War II to a widely recognised global network in the new millennium. This publication documents the rise and development of international cooperation in the field of educational and vocational guidance from 1951 to 2011 and gives a chronological overview of the history, personnel and key events of IAEVG. It describes the policy achievements in strengthening professionalism of guidance. The historical part is based on several documents which the author found in the archives as well as on reports, publications and personal memories from his longstanding personal service in the Board and Executive Committee of IAEVG. Through the historical chronicle and the reprinting of important documents on policies and professional developments of the association the reader receives an impression of the vitality of IAEVG and its valuable contributions to career guidance development over the years and across the globe.
    Keywords: Wirtschaft ; Bildung und Erziehung ; Economics ; Education ; Beratungswesen ; Berufsforschung, Berufssoziologie ; Lehre und Studium, Professionalisierung und Ethik, Organisationen und Verbände der Erziehungswissenschaft ; Counseling System ; Occupational Research, Occupational Sociology ; Training, Teaching and Studying, Professional Organizations of Education and Pedagogics ; Bildung ; Berufsberatung ; historische Entwicklung ; Professionalisierung ; Kooperation ; Bildungseinrichtung ; internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Bildungspolitik ; Bildungsberatung ; international cooperation ; educational guidance ; education ; vocational counseling ; educational policy ; professionalization ; historical development ; educational institution ; cooperation
    Type: annual report , Tätigkeitsbericht, Jahresbericht
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    DEU
    In:  Library Hi Tech | 24 | 4 | 529-539 | Academic information services: new paradigms
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of Bergman’s study on the deep web. In addition, this study brings a new concept into the discussion, the academic invisible web (AIW). The paper defines the academic invisible web as consisting of all databases and collections relevant to academia but not searchable by the general-purpose internet search engines. Indexing this part of the invisible web is central to scientific search engines. This paper provides an overview of approaches followed thus far. (author's abstract)
    Keywords: News media, journalism, publishing ; Publizistische Medien, Journalismus,Verlagswesen ; Academic Invisible Web; AIW; Digitale Bibliothek ; Information und Dokumentation, Bibliotheken, Archive ; Information and Documentation, Libraries, Archives ; Internet ; Suchmaschine ; Indexierung ; Bibliothekswesen ; Wissenschaftsbetrieb ; Forschungsdokumentation ; Literaturdokumentation ; information retrieval ; Datenbank ; Internet ; search engine ; indexing ; librarianship ; scientific scene ; research documentation ; literature documentation ; information retrieval ; data bank ; 50200
    Type: Zeitschriftenartikel , journal article
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    Uchitel Publishing House | RUS | Volgograd
    In:  400
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: The present volume is the fifth in the series of yearbooks with the title Globalistics and Globalization Studies. The subtitle of the present volume is Global Transformations and Global Future. We become more and more accustomed to think globally and to see global processes. And our future can all means be global. However, is this statement justified? Indeed, in recent years, many have begun to claim that globalization has stalled, that we are rather dealing with the process of anti-globalization. Will not we find ourselves at some point again in an edifice spanning across the globe, but divided into national apartments, separated by walls of high tariffs and mutual suspicion? Of course, some setbacks are always possible, because the process of globalization cannot develop smoothly. It is a process which is itself emerging from contradictions and is shaped by a new contradiction. They often go much further than underlying systemic changes allow. They break forward, as the vanguard of a victorious army, and then often meet resistance of various social and political forces and may suddenly start to roll back just at the moment when everyone expects their further offensive. We believe that this is what is happening with globalization at present. The yearbook will be interesting to a wide range of researchers, teachers, students and all those who are concerned about global issues.
    Keywords: Soziologie, Anthropologie ; Sociology & anthropology ; Allgemeine Soziologie, Makrosoziologie, spezielle Theorien und Schulen, Entwicklung und Geschichte der Soziologie ; General Sociology, Basic Research, General Concepts and History of Sociology, Sociological Theories ; Weltordnung ; Zukunftsforschung ; Globalisierung ; Weltgesellschaft ; globaler Wandel ; soziale Entwicklung ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; demographische Alterung ; internationale Politik ; Klimapolitik ; world order ; futurology ; globalization ; world society ; global change ; social change ; population development ; demographic aging ; international politics ; climate policy ; 30300 ; 10500 ; 20700 ; 10200 ; 10900
    Type: Sammelwerk , collection
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    MISC
    In:  AGROFOR International Journal | Agrofor International Journal | 2 | 3 | 61-70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: This paper presents four new strategies for growing the organic agriculture sector. Globally there are 51 million hectares of certified organic agriculture land and a further 39 million hectares of wild culture land. For the past two decades organic agriculture has been growing at 11.9% per annum, thereby doubling the size of the sector every six years. Nevertheless, despite ten decades of advocacy for organics, only 1.1% of the world’s agricultural land is certified organic. From the outset, the strategy has been to advance the sector ‘one farm at a time’. This strategy has left the organics sector well short of the vision of the pioneers of organics who saw organic farming as a universal solution and a practice suited for all farmers and all agriculture. Successful exemplars of marketing strategies of converting ‘one consumer at a time’ remain elusive. Recent years have seen the development of new strategies for growth of the organics sector. The strategy of ‘one crop at a time’ has proved successful for the Dominican Republic which now produces 55% of the world’s certified organic bananas. The strategy of ‘one state at a time’ has seen the state of Sikkim (in India) declare itself as the first Indian organic state. Meanwhile, other Indian states are working towards all-organic status, including Mizoram, Goa, Rajasthan and Meghalaya. The strategy of ‘one island at a time’ has seen the Pacific islands of Cicia (in Fiji) and Abaiang (in Kiribati) commit to 100% organic farming. The strategy of ‘one country at a time’ sees Bhutan with the stated goal of being the world’s first organic nation. These new strategies rely for success on the tripartite cooperation of government, community and commerce. In the meantime, as these new strategies play out, only 11 countries report that 10% or more of their agriculture land is organic, while 111 countries report that less than 1% of their land is certified organic, which reveals great potential for new growth strategies.
    Keywords: Wirtschaft ; Ökologie ; Economics ; Ecology ; Sikkim; Fiji; Kiribati ; Ökologie und Umwelt ; Wirtschaftssektoren ; Ecology, Environment ; Economic Sectors ; Bhutan ; organic farming ; sustainability ; Melanesia ; agriculture ; Micronesia ; India ; ökologischer Landbau ; Indien ; Mikronesien ; Melanesien ; Landwirtschaft ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Bhutan ; 10400
    Type: journal article , Zeitschriftenartikel
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    DEU | Frankfurt am Main
    In:  15 | PRIF Working Papers | 21
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Academic interest in democracy promotion notwithstanding, there is still little research that systematically compares different democracy promoters with a view to identifying the factors that explain variance in democracy promotion policies. The paper presents results of a research project that set out to contribute to filling this gap by analyzing the democracy promotion policies of two "donors" (USA, Germany) towards six "recipient" countries (Pakistan and Turkey, Bolivia and Ecuador, Russia and Belarus). It studies how "donor" states react to specific challenges that arise from "recipient" countries and that lead to conflicting objectives on the part of the democracy promoters. The paper asks how democracy promoters, across the twelve cases, deal with conflicting objectives and assesses the overall national patterns that characterize U.S. and German democracy promotion. With a view to both tasks, the paper offers causal explanations that are based on a theoretical framework that combines power-, interest- and norm-based determinants. While the mainstream view argues that "hard" interests regularly prevail over "soft" norms in cases of conflict, the analysis shows that the causal effect of the individual determinants on democracy promotion is not uniform, but depends on both the configuration of determinants and on the specific conditions in the "recipient" country.
    Keywords: Internationale Beziehungen ; Politikwissenschaft ; International relations ; Political science ; Peace and Conflict Research, International Conflicts, Security Policy ; International Relations, International Politics, Foreign Affairs, Development Policy ; Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Sicherheitspolitik ; internationale Beziehungen, Entwicklungspolitik ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; USA ; Demokratisierung ; internationaler Vergleich ; Pakistan ; Türkei ; Bolivien ; Ecuador ; Russland ; Weißrussland ; Konfliktpotential ; Zielkonflikt ; Federal Republic of Germany ; United States of America ; democratization ; international comparison ; Pakistan ; Turkey ; Bolivia ; Ecuador ; Russia ; Belorussia ; conflict potential ; conflict of objectives ; 10500
    Type: Arbeitspapier , working paper
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    Campus-Verl. | DEU | Frankfurt/M.
    In:  New technology at the outset: social forces in the shaping of technological innovations | 161-172
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Am Beispiel der historischen Entwicklung der Schreibmaschine thematisiert der Autor das Prinzip des "golden standard", mit dem verdeutlicht werden soll, wie der flexible Umgang mit einer entwickelten Technologie bzw. die vielschichtigen Möglichkeiten einer technischen Erfindung im Laufe der weiteren Industrialisierung verschwanden und sich stattdessen zu nur einem möglichen standardisierten System stabilisierten und institutionalisierten. Die These lautet, daß dieser Prozeß dem Konsensus über eine Konsolidierung unter den Praktikern entsprang, die, geleitet von der Idee des "golden standard", nach der bestmöglichen Lösung suchten, die den Bedürfnissen eines technischen Designs im Sinne der Massenproduktion entsprachen. Am Beispiel des "Querty keyboards" wird verdeutlicht, wie durch diese frühe Konsolidierung die Möglichkeiten für bestimmte zukünftige innovatorische Aktivitäten eingeschränkt und wie die Arbeit zukünftiger Technikdesigner durch bereits etablierte Technikformen behindert wird. (ICE)
    Keywords: Soziologie, Anthropologie ; Sociology & anthropology ; Industrie- und Betriebssoziologie, Arbeitssoziologie, industrielle Beziehungen ; Wissenschaftssoziologie, Wissenschaftsforschung, Technikforschung, Techniksoziologie ; Sociology of Work, Industrial Sociology, Industrial Relations ; Sociology of Science, Sociology of Technology, Research on Science and Technology ; neue Technologie ; Technologie ; Massenproduktion ; Industrie ; technische Entwicklung ; Innovation ; Erfindung ; Forschungsansatz ; historische Entwicklung ; Technikgenese ; Bürotechnik ; soziale Faktoren ; 19. Jahrhundert ; 20. Jahrhundert ; new technology ; technology ; mass production ; industry ; technical development ; innovation ; invention ; research approach ; historical development ; genesis of technology ; office technology ; social factors ; nineteenth century ; twentieth century
    Type: Sammelwerksbeitrag , collection article
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